Intransitive verbs are monovalent. For the archetypal intransitives, the verbal patient is the subject.
cura yr to change; to be different
huba Vb to breathe; to be alive
giri GR to conceive; to be pregnant
gupi <P to sit down; to wait
siku S> to die; to be dead
hacci h;C to awaken; to be awake
nara nr to sleep; to be asleep
nu’ifi IiF to hide; to be hidden
These verbs allow the speaker to describe an attribute of the subject.
The actor who imparts such an attribute is put in the ablative case.
The experiencer who perceives such an attribute is put in the dative case.
These are adjectival verbs specifically dealing with colour.
These verbs deal with motion of the subject. The origin of the movement is in ablative case, the destination in dative, and the general direction is marked with the adposition pa.
malu mW to move to; to be in a place
janni j;N to accelerate; to move around
’ussa u;s to follow
nura Ir to leave; to be apart from
madi mD to rise; to be high
ka’u ku to jump
hussu V;z to fall; to be low
saja sj to lie down; to be lying down
tiku T> to turn
na n to turn towards; to face
raca rc to be hung; to be hanging
fiqu FA to float; to be floating
tihu TV to move to; to abide
These are intransitive verbs in that they do not require a noun phrase in the object position. However, they act transitively by having a second noun phrase marked in a particular way.
These are marked with an oblique case marker:
The usual case assignment for objects of each of these verbs is shown here:
mala ml to reflect — ablative
faxi fX to survive — dative
These verbs are used to denote the degree of similarity between two nouns. Their nuance can be modified by use of different case markers or adpositions.
Case denotes unmarked similarity or difference, dative for the former, ablative for the latter.
The adposition haru hw with denotes a slight similarity or difference.
The adpositions ’adi aD near and xidu XE far denote a large similarity or difference.
runihi wNH to be similar to
tina Tn to be different from
The participants of these verbs are equivalent to each other, that is, if Alice acts on Bob, then Bob acts on Alice in the same way. When the subject is Alice, say, then Bob can:
1. Be placed in the object position. Despite the structure, this is not transitive, as the verb has no passive, and pronouns use the intransitive form:
2. Take dative marking:
3. Be conjoined with the subject:
The basic meaning of these sentences is not changed when swapping the participants or using the alternate structures.
ju’i Yi to join
sisa Ss to touch
haru hw to accompany
hulla V;l to copulate; to have consumated