Intransitive verbs are monovalent. For the archetypal intransitives, the verbal patient is the subject.

cura yr to change; to be different

huba Vb to breathe; to be alive

giri GR to conceive; to be pregnant

gupi <P to sit down; to wait

siku S> to die; to be dead

hacci h;C to awaken; to be awake

nara nr to sleep; to be asleep

nu’ifi IiF to hide; to be hidden

Adjectival Verbs

These verbs allow the speaker to describe an attribute of the subject.

The actor who imparts such an attribute is put in the ablative case.

The experiencer who perceives such an attribute is put in the dative case.

mu U good

’anu aI balanced

guqqi <;Q bad

tuhi eH little

ki K big

ri R smooth

qira Qr rough

nama nm light

kuppu >;o strong

pani pN tame

nittu N;e wild

suqa zq ready

bi’u Bu sore

Chromatic Verbs

These are adjectival verbs specifically dealing with colour.

kiʔa K;a white

ga g black

miku M> red

baju bY blue

sa s yellow

millu M;W brown

Kinetic Verbs

These verbs deal with motion of the subject. The origin of the movement is in ablative case, the destination in dative, and the general direction is marked with the adposition pa.

janni j;N to accelerate; to move around

’ussa u;s to follow

nura Ir to leave; to be apart from

madi mD to rise; to be high

ka’u ku to jump

hussu V;z to fall; to be low

saja sj to lie down; to be lying down

tiku T> to turn

na n to turn towards; to face

raca rc to be hung; to be hanging

fiqu FA to float; to be floating

tihu TV to move to; to abide

malu mW to move to; to be in a place

Quasi-Transitive Verbs

These are intransitive verbs in that they do not require a noun phrase in the object position. However, they act transitively by having a second noun phrase marked in a particular way.

Oblique Arguments

These are marked with an oblique case marker:

The usual case assignment for objects of each of these verbs is shown here:

mala ml to reflectablative

faxi fX to survivedative


These verbs are used to denote the degree of similarity between two nouns. Their nuance can be modified by use of different case markers or adpositions.

Case denotes unmarked similarity or difference, dative for the former, ablative for the latter.

The adposition haru hw with denotes a slight similarity or difference.

The adpositions ’adi aD near and xidu XE far denote a large similarity or difference.

runihi wNH to be similar to

tina Tn to be different from

Symmetric Relations

The participants of these verbs are equivalent to each other, that is, if Alice acts on Bob, then Bob acts on Alice in the same way. When the subject is Alice, say, then Bob can:

1. Be placed in the object position. Despite the structure, this is not transitive, as the verb has no passive, and pronouns use the intransitive form:

2. Take dative marking:

3. Be conjoined with the subject:

The basic meaning of these sentences is not changed when swapping the participants or using the alternate structures.

ju’i Yi to join

sisa Ss to touch

haru hw to accompany

hulla V;l to copulate; to have consumated