Adpositions are a closed class.


Adpositions can be used in three different ways.


The most basic use for an adposition is prefixed to a noun to signify where the action is taking place with relation to a reference.

di’i’uja atop the table (di up ; ’i’uja table)

harululani with the queen (haru with ; lulani queen)

nicula in an egg (ni at ; cula egg)

qakalu’ita’i down from the cart (qa down ; kalu from ; ’ita’i cart)

Nominal and Verbal Modifier

Adpositions can also be used in conjunction with nouns and verbs to make compounds.

jannigibi to go east (janni to move ; gibi east)

gusu’adi nearby people (gusu person ; ’adi near)


Adpositions can be used by themselves to show the position of the action relative to the speaker, or the direction in which the action proceeds. Unlike other adverbs, these are placed after the auxiliary.

’adi nearby

qa hussu drop down (qa down ; hussu drop)


Cardinal Directions

ka south

sumika west

sani north

gibi east


These can be used to refer to locations in either space or time

’adi near; now

xidu far

di up; above; atop; before

qa down; below; beneath; after

’ari front; before

capi behind; after

pa towards; at

ni at; in; during

kika over

Spatial Locations

These can only be used to refer to locations in space.

jimuli outside

qu’u in; inside

nifi next to; beside; besides

raqu between; among

ca encircling

du’i beyond; opposite

la’a on a horizontal surface

kadu on a vertical surface


These refer to motion

data backwards

tirri forwards

ja along

ma’iki across

tiku around

bi out; out of; from


This group have animate objects.

haru with

ha for the benefit of


This group have inanimate objects.

nidu with; using

sarru without; instead of; rather than

haru consisting of

nina used for a purpose

sata in order to obtain

’arri along with