Adpositions are a closed class. They can be used in three different ways.

As a Preposition

The most basic use for an adposition is prefixed to a noun to signify where the action is taking place with relation to a reference. These act as prefixes.

Their nature as a prefix continues to apply even when the noun is already case-marked

As a Nominal or Verbal Modifier

Adpositions can be used to form compound nouns:

and compound verbs:

As an Adverb

Adpositions can be used independently to show the position of the action relative to the speaker, or the direction in which the action proceeds. Unlike other adverbs, these are placed before or instead of the auxiliary.

The auxiliary must appear to support an adverbial adposition in copular clauses.


This list includes both relative and absolute terms.

saqa sq right

gi G left

ka k south

sumika zMk west

sani sN north

gibi GB east


These can be used to refer to locations in either space or time.

’adi aD near / now

xidu XE far / then

di D up / upstream

qa q down / downstream

’ari aR front / before

capi cP behind / after

pa p towards / at

ni N at / during

kika Kk over / over

Spatial Locations

These can only be used to refer to locations in space.

jimuli JUL outside

qu’u Au in; inside

nifi NF beside

raqu rA among

ca c encircling

du’i Ei beyond

la’a la on a horizontal surface

kadu kE on a vertical surface


These refer to motion.

data dt backwards

tirri T;R forwards

ja j along

ma’iki miK across

tiku T$ around

bi B out of


This group have animate objects.

haru hw with

ha h for the benefit of

’aga ag to the detriment of


This group have inanimate objects.

nidu NE using

sarru s;w instead of

haru hw consisting of

nina Nn used for a purpose

sata st in order to obtain

’arri a;R along with