Suffixes can be used to derive new word from existing vocabulary. A suffix beginning with a vowel replaces the final vowel of the base.

Derivational Suffixes

These derive words within a class, i.e.: a noun from a noun, or a verb from a verb.

The augmentative -aku /a> is most often attached to nouns to reference something large or important. It is rarely used for people.

tissaku T;s> wind

’isilaku iSl> depression

The diminutive -ini /iN is used to form words which reference something small or unimportant. When used with animate nouns, it creates a word for the young of non-sapient creatures. However, with sapient creatures, this word is obscene.

’ahatini ahTN contentment

tissini T;SN breeze

qikannini Qk;NN puppy

ranini rNN potato chips

bi’ini BiN to itch

The honorific -fi F confers a nuance of sacredness upon a base word.

karafi krF sacredness

lulanifi WlNF great queen

The pair -tu’i ei and -da d are used to highlight the positive and negative aspects of a word, respectively.

dasatu’i dsei passion / dasada dsd anger

ta’itu’i tiei aroma / ta’ida tid stink

Nominal suffixes

These derive nouns from other nouns.

inanimate base abstract base
animate -rra
-sa / -ri
R . s
inanimate -di
abstract -ja


→ animate: -rra ;r

→ abstract: -ja j


→ animate: -sa s / -ri R

→ inanimate: -di D

The above table shows the suffixes used for deriving nouns between different animacy classes.

An animate noun is derived from an inanimate noun by the suffix -rra ;r.

tisakarra Tsk;r townsperson

Both -sa s and -ri R derive an animate noun from an abstract noun, however, these are not predictable. For instance, note the difference between dis·sa D;zs youth and dissuri D;zR stranger. Other examples are:

pucasa ocs optimist

sasa ss introvert

dattusa d;es god

mulisa ULs fool

luxirasa WXrs twin

tuhhisa e;Hs farmer

’axasiri axSR adult

’asilari aSlR friend

The -ri R suffix also denotes people from a particular place.

Tinalliri Tn;LR Tinellbian

The suffix -di D derives an inanimate noun from something abstract, and -ja j does the opposite.

sinnadi S;nD book

ru’ihaja wihj history

The suffix -li L derives nouns which are somehow distinct from their stem.

daruli dwL wrong way

gusuli non-Guozu person

The names of parts of the body are derived using -kku ;> on either nouns or verbs.

’itikku iT;> breast

mulukku UW;> heart

dasikku dS;> digestive system

The animate giver of the inanimate or abstract base is denoted by -mi M.

’aggami a;gM police officer / law giver

Sa’imi siM Caemi / light giver

The feminine and masculine are denoted by -qi and -kati respectively, however, they are infrequently used.

Verbal suffixes

These are only applied to verbs.

The suffix -ni N is used to derive inceptive verbs.

ducini ECN to receive

The suffix -ulu /uW denotes reversal of an action, and can only be applied to stem verbs.

lulu WW to undo

jannulu j;IW to return

turulu ewW to open

ju’ulu YuW to unlink

The repetition marker -tuni eN has similar form and meaning to the full verb tuni eN repeat.

latuni leN to do again

The augmentative -ssasu ;sz is used specifically for verbs.

bi’ussasu Bu;sz to really hurt

Auxiliary Infix

The infix -ar- is placed before the final vowel of auxiliaries, and denotes an end to the action described by the sentence.

lanaru lnw will finish doing

nagari ngR will finish being

Adverbial Suffixes

There are two kinds of negation for adverbs. The suffix -hita Ht is standard negation.

jamihita jMHt not in evidence

’ilihita iLHt not in reality

On the other hand, -ma m forms terminatives, i.e.: the situation described by the adverb was true in the past, but no longer applies.

nufirama no longer wanting

dumima no longer trying


These derive a noun from another part of speech, most often a verb.

The suffix -qa q derives generic nouns from numerals or alienable genitive pronouns.

disiqa DSq hers

nuruqa Iwq the four of them

The suffix -muka Uk is used with prepositional phrases.

disinnamuka DS;nUk prologue

Other suffixes in this group are divided into animacy classes.


The productive general suffix -’a a derives abstract nouns.

cura’a yra time

qacca’a q;ca choice

pa’a pa thought

The suffix -ru w forms gerunds.

dasiru dSw eating

janniru j;Nw moving

hubaru Vbw breathing

The suffix -ci is applied to adjectival verbs. This includes chromatic verbs, whence come the name for colours.

namaci nmC weakness

kiʔaci K;aC white

Application of -ppa ;p derives terms for times and occasions.

dasippa dS;p mealtime

sikuppa S>;p funeral

The suffix -ahi is used with adverbs.

nufirahi IFrH expectation


The patientive suffix -du E is applied to stem verbs.

dasidu dSE food

maladu mlE reflection

kassudu k;zE trade goods

The instrumental suffix -ffi ;F is applied to a verb.

dasiffi dS;F cutlery, tools for eating

sikuffi S>;F spear, tool for killing

The suffix -kku ;> derives names for parts of the body from verbs or nouns.

dasikku dS;> digestive system

’itikku iT;> breast

mulukku UW;> heart

When applied to a number, -ssiji ;SJ gives rise to the names of shapes.

kifissiji KF;SJ triangle

nurussiji Iw;SJ quadrilateral


There are three suffixes for deriving animate nouns from verbs. The suffix -la’i is used with intransitive verbs, while -ba and -pu’a derive generic agents and patients respectively.

narala’i nrli sleeper

’ussaba u;sb follower

caba cb helper

hisuba Hzb administrator

ju’ipu’a Yioa group

lu’ipu’a Wioa lover

cikkipu’a C;Koa telepath


The pair of suffixes -atinna /aT;n and -niqqi N;Q derive adverbs from verbs and nouns respectively.

’usatinna usT;n visibly

katinna kT;n increasingly

lu’atinna WaT;n lovingly

’ahatiniqqi ahTN;Q happily

’isilakuniqqi iSl>N;Q depressingly

bataniqqi btN;Q carefully

bufiniqqi OFN;Q stonily

ga’iniqqi giN;Q in time