Suffixes can be used to derive new word from existing vocabulary. A suffix beginning with a vowel replaces the final vowel of the base.
These tend to derive words within a class, i.e.: a noun from a noun, or a verb from a verb.
The augmentative -aku /a$ is most often attached to nouns to reference something large or important. It is rarely used for people.
The diminutive -ini /iN is used to form words which reference something small or unimportant. When used with animate nouns, it creates a word for the young of non-sapient creatures. However, with sapient creatures, this word is obscene.
The honorific -fi F confers a nuance of sacredness upon a base word.
karafi krF sacredness
lulanifi WlNF great queen
The pair -tu’i ei and -da d are used to highlight the positive and negative aspects of a word, respectively.
These derive nouns from other nouns.
|inanimate base ||abstract base|
|-sa / -ri|
R . s
|inanimate || ||-di|
→ animate: -rra ;r
→ abstract: -ja j
→ animate: -sa s / -ri R
→ inanimate: -di D
The above table shows the suffixes used for deriving nouns between different animacy classes.
An animate noun is derived from an inanimate noun by the suffix -rra ;r.
Both -sa s and -ri R derive an animate noun from an abstract noun, however, these are not predictable. For instance, note the difference between diss·sa D;zs youth and dissuri D;zR stranger. Other examples are:
The -ri R suffix also denotes people from a particular place.
The suffix -di D derives an inanimate noun from something abstract, and -ja j does the opposite.
The suffix -li L derives nouns which are somehow distinct from their stem.
The names of parts of the body are derived using -kku ;$ on either nouns or verbs.
The animate giver of the inanimate or abstract base is denoted by -mi M.
’aggami a;gM police officer / law giver
Sa’imi siM Caemi / light giver
Some nouns are so generic when forming compounds that they tend to end up acting as suffixes.
These are only applied to verbs.
The suffix -ni N is used to derive inceptive verbs.
The suffix -ulu /uW denotes reversal of an action, and can only be applied to stem verbs.
The augmentative -ss·su ;sz is used specifically for verbs.
bi’uss·su Bu;sz to really hurt
The infix -ar- is placed before the final vowel of auxiliaries, and denotes an end to the action described by the sentence.
These tend to move words from one part of speech to another
These derive a noun from another part of speech, most often a verb.
The suffix -qa q derives generic nouns from numerals or alienable genitive pronouns.
The suffix -muka Uk is used with prepositional phrases.
Other suffixes in this group are divided into animacy classes.
The productive general suffix -’a a derives abstract nouns.
The suffix -ru w forms gerunds.
The suffix -ci is applied to adjectival verbs. This includes chromatic verbs, whence come the name for colours.
Application of -ppa ;p derives terms for times and occasions.
dasippa dS;p mealtime
sikuppa S$;p funeral
The suffix -ahi is used with adverbs.
The agentive suffix -ki K is applied to verbs.
The patientive suffix -du E is applied to stem verbs.
The instrumental suffix -ffi ;F is applied to a verb.
dasiffi dS;F cutlery, tools for eating
sikuffi S$;F spear, tool for killing
The suffix -kku ;$ derives names for parts of the body from verbs or nouns.
When applied to a number, -ssiji ;SJ gives rise to the names of shapes.
There are three suffixes for deriving animate nouns from verbs. The suffix -la’i is used with intransitive verbs, while -ba and -pu’a derive generic agents and patients respectively.