Suffixes can be used to derive new word from existing vocabulary. A suffix beginning with a vowel replaces the final vowel of the base.
These derive words within a class, i.e.: a noun from a noun, or a verb from a verb.
The augmentative -aku /a> is most often attached to nouns to reference something large or important. It is rarely used for people.
The diminutive -ini /iN is used to form words which reference something small or unimportant. When used with animate nouns, it creates a word for the young of non-sapient creatures. However, with sapient creatures, this word is obscene.
The honorific -fi F confers a nuance of sacredness upon a base word.
karafi krF sacredness
lulanifi WlNF great queen
The pair -tu’i ei and -da d are used to highlight the positive and negative aspects of a word, respectively.
These derive nouns from other nouns.
|inanimate base ||abstract base|
|-sa / -ri|
R . s
|inanimate || ||-di|
→ animate: -rra ;r
→ abstract: -ja j
→ animate: -sa s / -ri R
→ inanimate: -di D
The above table shows the suffixes used for deriving nouns between different animacy classes.
An animate noun is derived from an inanimate noun by the suffix -rra ;r.
Both -sa s and -ri R derive an animate noun from an abstract noun, however, these are not predictable. For instance, note the difference between dis·sa D;zs youth and dissuri D;zR stranger. Other examples are:
The -ri R suffix also denotes people from a particular place.
The suffix -di D derives an inanimate noun from something abstract, and -ja j does the opposite.
The suffix -li L derives nouns which are somehow distinct from their stem.
The names of parts of the body are derived using -kku ;> on either nouns or verbs.
The animate giver of the inanimate or abstract base is denoted by -mi M.
’aggami a;gM police officer / law giver
Sa’imi siM Caemi / light giver
The feminine and masculine are denoted by -qi and -kati respectively, however, they are infrequently used.
These are only applied to verbs.
The suffix -ni N is used to derive inceptive verbs.
The suffix -ulu /uW denotes reversal of an action, and can only be applied to stem verbs.
The repetition marker -tuni eN has similar form and meaning to the full verb tuni eN repeat.
The augmentative -ssasu ;sz is used specifically for verbs.
bi’ussasu Bu;sz to really hurt
The infix -ar- is placed before the final vowel of auxiliaries, and denotes an end to the action described by the sentence.
There are two kinds of negation for adverbs. The suffix -hita Ht is standard negation.
jamihita jMHt not in evidence
’ilihita iLHt not in reality
On the other hand, -ma m forms terminatives, i.e.: the situation described by the adverb was true in the past, but no longer applies.
nufirama no longer wanting
dumima no longer trying
These derive a noun from another part of speech, most often a verb.
The suffix -qa q derives generic nouns from numerals or alienable genitive pronouns.
The suffix -muka Uk is used with prepositional phrases.
Other suffixes in this group are divided into animacy classes.
The productive general suffix -’a a derives abstract nouns.
The suffix -ru w forms gerunds.
The suffix -ci is applied to adjectival verbs. This includes chromatic verbs, whence come the name for colours.
Application of -ppa ;p derives terms for times and occasions.
The suffix -ahi is used with adverbs.
The patientive suffix -du E is applied to stem verbs.
The instrumental suffix -ffi ;F is applied to a verb.
dasiffi dS;F cutlery, tools for eating
sikuffi S>;F spear, tool for killing
The suffix -kku ;> derives names for parts of the body from verbs or nouns.
When applied to a number, -ssiji ;SJ gives rise to the names of shapes.
There are three suffixes for deriving animate nouns from verbs. The suffix -la’i is used with intransitive verbs, while -ba and -pu’a derive generic agents and patients respectively.
The pair of suffixes -atinna /aT;n and -niqqi N;Q derive adverbs from verbs and nouns respectively.