The first noun in a clause is the subject, which is prototypically the agent in transitive sentences and the patient in intransitive sentences. However, suffixes can be added to the verb to promote other nouns in the clause, other than the genitive.
There are three such verbal suffixes, which can be stacked, however, once something has been shifted from the subject position, it can’t be promoted again.
The passive suffix promotes the object. This suffix has the form -’illu when the last element of a verb is monosyllabic, has -ilu replacing the final vowel if the final consonant is geminated, and has -illu replacing the final vowel of the verb elsewise. The old subject is then marked with the ablative case. A sentence with this marker is intransitive. The demoted item is not compulsory, but if it is put in, it is the first ablative-marked noun in the new sentence.
Fu qixa kissa kilatu’i!
“You fought a deer!”
Kilatu’i qixa (sacu) kissilu.
“A deer was fought (by you).”
When the final consonant of a verb is geminate, the ablative suffix takes the form -ka, elsewise it is -kka. The old subject is demoted to object, and the old object is demoted to dative. A sentence with this marker is transitive. The first dative-marked noun in the new sentence is the demoted item.
“The queen ate a fish because of the king.”
“The king made the queen eat fish.”
Kimilli qixa (kal·lani) dasilluka qasa.
“The king made the fish get eaten (by the queen).”
The suffix xa promotes a dative. The old subject is demoted to object, and the old object (if any) is demoted to dative. A sentence with this marker is transitive.
“A fool gives money to the mountain.”
“It is to the mountain that fools give money.”
“It is to the mountain that money is given (by fools).”
To promote a adpositional phrase to subject, prefix the verb with the adposition. The old subject is demoted to object. The old object, if any, is demoted to dative.
“She sat in the sand.”
“It was the sand that she sat in.”
“He was eating a strawberry in the sand.”
“It was in the sand that he was eating the strawberry.”