These are a closed class. They are marked for case and person. The third person pronouns are additionally marked for topicality or animacy. The alienable genitive acts as the nominal head of a possessive phrase, the inalienable genitive is a determiner, and the other pronouns all act as nouns.
|1st person||2nd person||3rd person|
alienable genitive: pagu
inalienable genitive: -pahi
alienable genitive: ba
inalienable genitive: -ba
third person topic:
alienable genitive: su’a
third person animate:
alienable genitive: disi
inalienable genitive: -disi
third person inanimate:
inalienable genitive: -qa
Pronouns are not generally marked for number.
However, if reference is made to a group that includes more than one of these persons, then additional pronouns can be constructed. The second person transitive pronoun -fu
|1st person||2nd person||all persons|
first person inclusive:
alienable genitive: pagufu
first person exclusive:
alienable genitive: pagupa
second person inclusive:
alienable genitive: bapa
alienable genitive: pagufupa
The genitive forms mark a connection between nouns, including one noun possessing another.
Possession is alienable when the possessed item can be transferred from one owner to another. Alienable possessions include objects bought or received by a person. There is no inanimate alienable genitive pronoun as objects cannot own anything.
The structure of the possessive phrase for alienable possession is “possessor genitive possessed”.
This structure is also used in a hierarchy when the ‘possessor’ is of higher rank than the ‘possessed’.
Inalienable possession refers to items which are unable to be transferred from one individual to another. Inalienable possessions include relatives, parts of the body and objects created by a person.
For inalienable possession, as well as genitive constructions that do not involve literal possession, the structure is “possessed-genitive possessor“, that is, the genitive marker is an enclitic on the possessed item. This marker is always the third person inanimate genitive pronoun, unless the possessor is a plain pronoun.
This structure is also used in a hierarchy when the ‘possessor’ is of lower rank than the ‘possessed’, in contrast to the alienable example above.
Items inalienably possessed by the topic appear without a genitive pronoun.
Some kinship terms have suppletive forms when used with a plain possessive pronoun. See that section for details.