Indefinite Pro-forms

The indefinite pro-forms are sets of deictic words which can be placed into a table.

object place action manner state
noun determiner
proximate mari
mR
-mari
mR
majja / miru
Mw . m;j
marila
mRl
madusi
mES
marika
mRk
distal kasi
kS
-kasi
kS
kasuja
kzj
kalisa
kLs
kadusi
kES
kasika
kSk
interrogative sama
sm
-diku
D>
satta
s;t
sulla
z;l
lara
lr
saqqa
s;q
negative cu’i
yi
-cu
y
qa’i
qi
buni
ON
-
universal ’aba
ab
-’aba
ab
batuja
bej
’abala
abl
existential ’umi
uM
-mi
M
mituja
Mej
’amila
aMl
fana
fn

proximate:

object noun: mari mR

object determiner: -mari mR

place: majja m;j / miru Mw

action: marila mRl

manner: madusi mES

state: marika mRk

distal:

object noun: kasi kS

object determiner: -kasi kS

place: kasuja kzj

action: kalisa kLs

manner: kadusi kES

state: kasika kSk

interrogative:

object noun: sama sm

object determiner: -diku D>

place: satta s;t

action: sulla z;l

manner: lara lr

state: saqqa s;q

negative:

object noun: cu’i yi

object determiner: -cu y

place: qa’i qi

action: buni ON

universal:

object noun: ’aba ab

object determiner: -’aba ab

place: batuja bej

action: ’abala abl

existential:

object noun: ’umi uM

object determiner: -mi M

place: mituja Mej

action: ’amila aMl

manner / state: fana fn

Proximate forms have referents physically or psychologically near the speaker, whereas distal forms are used when the referent is far away. Interrogative forms are used in questions, and negative forms are used in negative sentences. Universal means “all” or “every”, and existential means “some” or “any”.

The existential markers are also used in complements.

Object Noun

Object nouns are pronouns. Unlike some personal pronouns, these are not marked for animacy, and are thus used to represent people, animals or things.

This latter example exploits the ability to swap dative and object for motive verbs.

Reduplicated indefinite pronouns with suffixed -ta t and are used for emphasis.

Object Determiner

Object determiners act as determiners. In most cases, derivations from the object noun forms are obvious.

Place

Place pronouns are used for locations in any, some or all of: space, time, reality and gingla. They can function as adverbial adpositions,

or as nouns.

As opposed to majja m;j here or now, the word miru Mw here and now is used for a specific point in all four categories of dimension.

Action

The action terms are pro-verbs, which can be used to replace ordinary verbs in sentences.

Manner

Manner pro-forms are used to refer to the way in which an action is undertaken. They function as modal adverbs in active sentences, i.e.: sentences with overt or implied auxiliaries of activity.

State

State pro-forms are used as modal adverbs in stative sentences, i.e.: sentences with overt or implied auxiliaries of state.

They can also function as deteminers.