This page includes a list of changes from High Lulani to Demotic Lulani.
A detailed up-to-date list of changes in kept at GitHub, in a Python file that applies these changes to a High Lulani word.
- Lowering of back vowels before peripheral consonants.
- Shifting of geminate consonants: unvoiced plosive → voiced plosive → voiced fricative
- I-mutation of vowels when followed by /
i/ in the next syllable.
- Palatalisation of alveolar sounds when followed by /
- Loss of /
i/ after geminate consonants.
- Degemination of consonants.
- Elision of unstressed /
ə/, followed by consonant cluster reduction.
- Reduction of remaining unstressed vowels to schwa. This can be transliterated with a lower dot on the affected vowel.
Verbs and adjectives
Auxiliaries were cliticised onto verbs. From a combination of stress patterns and elision / reduction of unstressed vowels, verbs became trigrade. Adjectives developed from verbs originally followed by monosyllabic auxiliaries, i.e.: grade one and grade zero verbs. Grade two verbs remained verbs, however, the meaning of the auxiliaries has shifted.
< verb > + -hu → emotional adjectives
< verb > + -pi → positive adjectives
< verb > + -ji → negative adjectives
< verb > + -ru → abstract gerund
< verb > + -na → concrete gerund
< verb > + -qixa → past perfect
< verb > + -cani → non-past perfect
< verb > + -taku → past imperfect
< verb > + -ra’u → non-past imperfect
< verb > + -qilu → negative
< verb > + -lanu → positive imperative
< verb > + -funi → negative imperative
< verb > + -rusa → past historic
< verb > + -ruku → future historic
< verb > + -nagi → Ø
The dative began to take over the functions of the accusative, which was thereby dropped.