Matrix Clauses

The standard word order for matrix clauses is:

Subject ‐ Auxiliary ‐ Adposition - Oblique ‐ Verb ‐ Object ‐ Adverb.

None of these slots are compulsorily filled. If a subject is obvious from context, or is the same as that of the immediately prior sentence, it can be dropped. The adverb can act as a pro-sentence.

Intransitive Clauses

As already discussed, intransitive clauses do not have objects.

Transitive Clauses

Transitive clauses do require an object.

Sometimes the object is in an oblique case.

Copular Sentences

Copular sentences do not have a main verb. These sentences are used to show an equivalence relationship between two nouns, or to show that one noun is an element of the set described by the other noun. They are transitive sentences.

Another use of copular sentences is to tell the location of something in relation to something else.

The copular sentence structure for ownership is as follows. It has the possessor in the dative case, and the possessum as the subject.

The arguments may be swapped without a change in meaning.

Contrasting Pronouns

These example sentences have been given to clarify alignment and the correct use of pronouns with different auxiliaries.

As can be seen, the only time the transitive case is used for the subject of a clause is in transitive (as well as copular) sentences using dynamic or iterative auxiliaries.