Matrix Clauses

The standard word order for matrix clauses is:

Subject ‐ Auxiliary ‐ Adposition - Oblique ‐ Verb ‐ Object ‐ Adverb.

None of these slots are compulsorily filled. If a subject is obvious from context, or is the same as that of the immediately prior sentence, it can be dropped. The adverb can act as a pro-sentence.

Intransitive Clauses

As already discussed, intransitive clauses do not have objects.

Mihu ra’u nara.

3int prs;sta sleep

“He is asleep.”

Transitive Clauses

Transitive clauses do require an object.

ʔusu ru lu’i fu.

1int prs;gno love2tra

“I love you.”

Sometimes the object is in an oblique case.

Mihu ra’u kuqikanni ’usa.

3ani;int prs;sta dat-dog see.

“She can see the dog.”

Copular Sentences

Copular sentences do not have a main verb. These sentences are used to show an equivalence relationship between two nouns, or to show that one noun is an element of the set described by the other noun. They are transitive sentences.

Mihu lanu julliga.

3ani;int fut;dyn married_woman

“She will become a married woman.”

Another use of copular sentences is to tell the location of something in relation to something else.

Pa ra’u di’i’uja.

3ina;int prs;gno down-table

“It’s under the table.”

The copular sentence structure for ownership is as follows. It has the possessor in the dative case, and the possessum as the subject.

Sunu ru pixi.

Cloak prs;gno 1dat

I have a cloak.

The arguments may be swapped without a change in meaning.

Pixi ru sunu.

1dat prs;gno cloak.

I have a cloak.

Contrasting Pronouns

These example sentences have been given to clarify alignment and the correct use of pronouns with different auxiliaries.

Mihu qixa miku.

3ani.int pst;dyn red

“She turned red.”

Mihu pi miku.

3ani.int pst;sta red

“She was red.”

Quhu qixa dasi pa.

3ani.tra pst;dyn eat 3ina.int

“She ate it.”

Mihu pi dasi ’iffa.

3ani.int pst;sta eat 3ina.tra

“She was eating it.”

As can be seen, the only time the transitive case is used for the subject of a clause is in transitive (as well as copular) sentences using dynamic or iterative auxiliaries.