Consonants are differentiated by manner and place of articulation, and by word-internal gemination. Plosives also have contrasting voice.
This table shows the consonants phonemically, using the International Phonetic Alphabet. Where it differs from IPA, the transliteration is given in <triangular brackets>.
Capital or geminate glottal stops are transliterated with <ʔ>. Examples:
ba’u — usual word-internal glottal stop
nasiʔu — geminate word-internal glottal stop
’usu — usual glottal stop within sentence
ʔusu — capitalised glottal stop at beginning of sentence
ʔallisi — capitalised glottal stop for proper noun (Alice)
Stops are differentiated by voicing, although voiced consonants tend to be rarer than their voiceless counterparts.
The voiced stops are fully voiced word-internally and partially voiced word-initially. Voiced geminate stops are given breathy voice. Voiceless stops are lightly aspirated, which is suppressed in voiceless geminate stops.
Geminate stops are held for approximately twice as long as non-geminate stops.
The velar plosives are
The glottal stop
There are nasal consonants at each of the places of articulation of the plosives. However, the palatal nasal is only found when geminating the alveolar nasal. Nasals are prototypically voiced. Geminate nasals are held for 1 ½ times as long as non-geminates.
The labial nasal
The alveolar nasal
The liquids are mainly differentiated by laterality. This language lacks phonemic glides. Like nasals, approximants are prototypically voiced, and geminates are held for 1 ½ times as long as non-geminates.
Fricatives do not have complete closure of the vocal tract, but are formed with enough constriction to bring turbulence to the airstream.
Fricatives are prototypically voiceless. The lips remain unrounded for all fricatives unless followed or preceded by a rounded vowel. Geminate fricatives are held for 1 ½ times as long as non-geminates.
The palatal fricative