Verbs

A verb is a necessary part of any sentence, except when making copular sentences.

Basic Verbs

The class of basic verbs is semi-closed. Basic verbs consist of one stem.

’i i to say

dissu D;z to feel

’usa us to see

janni j;N to move

kissa K;s to fight

miku M> to be red

Compound Verbs

In order to extend or specify the meaning of many verbs, verbs can be compounded much as a noun can. Compound verbs are, however, much more common than compound nouns, to make up for the relative lack of basic verbs.

’isinna

iS;n

’i + sinna

say-story

“to tell a story”

dissu’ahati

D;zahT

dissu + ’ahati

feel-happiness

“to be happy”

pamilami

pMlM

pa + milami

think-surroundings

“to be conscious”

Verbal Arguments

The arguments of a verb are those nouns which accompany it in order to construct a sentence. The two main arguments are the subject and the object, and verbs can be categorised by which of these are obligatory.

Intransitivity

Intransitive verbs only require a subject, not an object.

Badiri ru cura.

.bDR / w / yr.

Badiri ru cura.

World prs;gno change.

“The world is always changing.”

cura yr to change; to be different

gupi <P to sit down; to wait

huba Vb to breathe; to be alive

siku S> to die; to be dead

hacci h;C to awaken; to be awake

nara nr to sleep; to be asleep

Kinetic Verbs

These verbs deal with motion of the subject.

janni j;N to accelerate; to move around

’ussa u;s to follow

nura Ir to leave; to be apart from

madi mD to rise; to be high

ka’u ku to jump

hussu V;z to fall; to be low

saja sj to lie down; to be lying down

tiku T> to turn

raca rc to be hung; to be hanging

fiqu FA to float; to be floating

Attributive Verbs

These verbs describe an attribute of the subject. These become “to be X” when the auxiliary is continuous, and “to become X” when discrete.

Mihu ra’u giri. / Mihu qixa giri.

.MV / Qx / GR. - .MV / ru / GR.

Mihu ra’u giri. / Mihu qixa giri.

3ani;int prs;sta pregnant. / 3ani;int pst;dyn pregnant.

“She is pregnant.” / “She fell pregnant.”

mu U good

guqqi <;Q bad

tuhi eH little

ki K big

ri R smooth

qira Qr rough

nama nm light

kuppu >;o strong

pani pN tame

nittu N;e wild

runihi wNH similar to

tina Tn differ from

suqa zq ready

bi’u Bu sore

giri GR pregnant

Chromatic Verbs

These are attributive verbs specifically dealing with colour.

kiʔa K; white

ga g black

miku M> red

baju bY blue

sa s yellow

millu M;W brown

Verbs with Prepositional Objects

mala: to reflect

faxi: to survive

tihu: to abide

malu: to be in a place

na: to face

nu’ifi: to hide

hulla: to have sex

sisa: to be in contact

Transitivity

Transitive Physical

buma: to draw; to write; to project on screen

dasi: to place in the mouth; to eat; to chew; to suck; to lick; to drink

duci: to have; to own; to possess

funi: to lack

ga: to put

gi: to carry; to take; to bring; to have; to hold

kissa: to fight

maku: to throw

nidu: to use

xu: to put out; to radiate; to broadcast

Verbs of Transformation

’idu: to create; to make

pifa: to create ex nihilo; to make

pura: to change; to become

ju’i: link; join; wear

si’a: heal; fix

lakka: to break

qarri: to open

turu: to close; to fill

Action Verbs

la: do

tara: to begin

tuni: to repeat

nu: to stop

naqa: need

Verbs Requiring Animate Objects

kuli: to meet; to become acquainted

ca: to help

hisu: to administer; to manage; to run; to rule

’ussa: to obey

saki: to share

kuffa: to give

tali: to take away from someone

Ambitransitivity

Perceptive Verbs

’usa: to look; to see; to watch

hulu: to hear; to listen

cussi: feel; touch

ji’i: to taste; to smell

’i: to say; to speak; to tell

dissu: to feel

cikki: to hear telepathically; to see empathically

lu’i: to love

qacca: choose; decide

pa: to think

ma: to think with the soul

Subtle

xi: to appear to be; to project

qi: to experience