Suffixes can be used to derive new word from existing vocabulary. A suffix beginning with a vowel replaces the final vowel of the base.
Ordinary Derivational Suffixes
These derive words within a class, i.e.: a noun from a noun, or a verb from a verb.
-aku forms an augmentative. It is most often attached to nouns to reference something large or important. It is rarely used for people.
-ini is used to form diminutives, words referencing something small or unimportant. When used with animate nouns, it creates a word for the young of non-sapient creatures. However, with sapient creatures, this word is obscene.
ranini potato chips
bi’ini to itch
-fi confers a nuance of sacredness or honour upon a base word.
lulanifi great queen
These derive nouns from other nouns.
|Inanimate Base||Abstract Base|
|Animate||-rra||-sa / -ri|
The above table shows the suffixes used for deriving nouns between different animacy classes.
-rra derives an animate noun from an inanimate noun.
-ri also denotes people from a particular place.
-kku derives the names of parts of the body from either a noun or a verb.
dasikku digestive system
-mi denotes an animate giver of the inanimate or abstract base.
’aggami police officer
Sa’imi Caemi, giver of light
These are only applied to verbs.
-ni derives an inceptive verb
ducini to receive
-ulu denotes reversal of an action.
lulu to undo
jannulu to return
turulu to open
ju’ulu to unlink
-tuni denotes repeat of an action.
latuni to do again
-ssasu is an augmentative used specifically for verbs.
bi’ussasu to really hurt
Other Parts of Speech
These suffixes are applied to words other than nouns and verbs.
-karu replaces the entire final syllable of disyllabic auxiliaries, and denotes an end to the action described by the sentence.
lakaru will finish doing
nakaru will finish being
-ma derives terminative adverbs.
nufirama no longer wanting
-hita is used to negate adverbs.
nufirahita not wanting
These derive a noun from another part of speech, most often a verb. They are categorised here by the animacy class of the resultant word.
-’a is a productive general suffix for deriving abstract nouns.
-ru forms gerunds.
-ppa derives terms used for times and occasions.
-du derives a patientive inanimate noun from a verb.
-ffi: stem derivational suffix verb → noun instrument; tool
-kku: derivational suffix noun ; verb → noun body part
-ssiji: derivational suffix mathematics → noun derives the names of shapes from the number of edges or vertices
-la’i: derivational suffix verb → noun derives an animate noun from an intransitive verb
-ba: derivational suffix verb → noun derives an animate agentive noun from a transitive verb
-pu’a: derivational suffix verb → noun derives an animate patientive noun from a transitive verb
-ahi: derivational suffix adverb → noun derives a noun from an adverb
-muka: derivational suffix adposition → noun derives a noun from a prepositional phrase
-qa: derivational suffix numeral verb pronoun → noun nominaliser; nmn
Other Part of Speech changes
-atinna: derivational suffix verb → adverb derives an adverb from a verb
-niqqi: derivational suffix noun → adverb derives an adverb from a noun