Suffixes can be used to derive new word from existing vocabulary. A suffix beginning with a vowel replaces the final vowel of the base.

Ordinary Derivational Suffixes

These derive words within a class, i.e.: a noun from a noun, or a verb from a verb.

-aku forms an augmentative. It is most often attached to nouns to reference something large or important. It is rarely used for people.

tissaku wind

’isilaku depression

-ini is used to form diminutives, words referencing something small or unimportant. When used with animate nouns, it creates a word for the young of non-sapient creatures. However, with sapient creatures, this word is obscene.

’ahatini contentment

tissini breeze

qikannini puppy

ranini potato chips

bi’ini to itch

-fi confers a nuance of sacredness or honour upon a base word.

karafi sacredness

lulanifi great queen

-tu’i and da are used to highlight the positive and negative aspects of a word, respectively.

dasatu’i passion / dasada anger

ta’itu’i aroma / ta’ida stink

Nominal suffixes

These derive nouns from other nouns.

Inanimate Base Abstract Base
Animate -rra -sa / -ri
Inanimate -di
Abstract -ja

The above table shows the suffixes used for deriving nouns between different animacy classes.

-rra derives an animate noun from an inanimate noun.

tisakarra townsperson

-sa and -ri both derive an animate noun from an abstract noun, however, these are not predictable. For instance, note the difference between dis·sa youth and dissuri stranger. Other examples are:

pucasa optimist

sasa introvert

dattusa god

mulisa fool

luxirasa twin

tuhhisa farmer

’axasiri adult

’asilari friend

-ri also denotes people from a particular place.

Tinalliri Tinellbian

-di derives an inanimate noun from something abstract, and -ja does the opposite.

sinnadi book

ru’ihaja history

-kku derives the names of parts of the body from either a noun or a verb.

’itikku breast

mulukku heart

dasikku digestive system

-mi denotes an animate giver of the inanimate or abstract base.

’aggami police officer

Sa’imi Caemi, giver of light

-qi and -kati denote the feminine and masculine respectively, however they are infrequently used.

Verbal suffixes

These are only applied to verbs.

-ni derives an inceptive verb

ducini to receive

-ulu denotes reversal of an action.

lulu to undo

jannulu to return

turulu to open

ju’ulu to unlink

-tuni denotes repeat of an action.

latuni to do again

-ssasu is an augmentative used specifically for verbs.

bi’ussasu to really hurt

Other Parts of Speech

These suffixes are applied to words other than nouns and verbs.

-karu replaces the entire final syllable of disyllabic auxiliaries, and denotes an end to the action described by the sentence.

lakaru will finish doing

nakaru will finish being

-ma derives terminative adverbs.

nufirama no longer wanting

-hita is used to negate adverbs.

nufirahita not wanting


These derive a noun from another part of speech, most often a verb. They are categorised here by the animacy class of the resultant word.


-’a is a productive general suffix for deriving abstract nouns.

cura’a time

qacca’a choice

pa’a thought

-ru forms gerunds.

dasiru eating

janniru moving

hubaru breathing

-ppa derives terms used for times and occasions.

dasippa mealtime

sikuppa funeral


-du derives a patientive inanimate noun from a verb.

-ffi: stem derivational suffix verb → noun instrument; tool

-kku: derivational suffix noun ; verb → noun body part

-ssiji: derivational suffix mathematics → noun derives the names of shapes from the number of edges or vertices


-la’i: derivational suffix verb → noun derives an animate noun from an intransitive verb

-ba: derivational suffix verb → noun derives an animate agentive noun from a transitive verb

-pu’a: derivational suffix verb → noun derives an animate patientive noun from a transitive verb


-ahi: derivational suffix adverb → noun derives a noun from an adverb

-muka: derivational suffix adposition → noun derives a noun from a prepositional phrase

-qa: derivational suffix numeral verb pronoun → noun nominaliser; nmn

Other Part of Speech changes

-atinna: derivational suffix verb → adverb derives an adverb from a verb

-niqqi: derivational suffix noun → adverb derives an adverb from a noun