A determiner can be used to narrow the reference of a noun. They can only be used as noun suffixes.



These are used to answer ”how many?”

cu no; zero

mimu’i some; more than one

lumi several

’uhu many

takki many

raqi more; additional


There are two sets of determiners, both used to select a part from the whole. One group is used with count nouns, the other with mass nouns.

Count Nouns

These refer to particular members of a group.

cu none

sama which

ca only

fi’atu certain; particular

mi any; some

tapa next

cari remaining; rest

qafa last; final

’aba all

Mass Nouns

These refer to sections of a substance.

cari remaining; rest

sukki entire; whole; all


These refer to particular objects, based on their direction.

mari this

kasi that

gi left; on the left-hand side

saqa right; on the right-hand side


These mark the degree to which the noun matches its referent.

ji’a not; not a

naci somewhat

nata complete; utter


This last terms do not fit into any of the other categories.

cama usual; old; familiar; customary

nisa only; sole; one

li other

sabufi different