Personal Pronouns

These are a closed class. They are marked for case and person. The third person pronouns are additionally marked for topicality or animacy. The alienable genitive acts as the nominal head of a possessive phrase, the inalienable genitive is a determiner, and the other pronouns all act as nouns.

1st person 2nd person 3rd person
topic animate inanimate
intranstitive ’usu
uz
filli
F;L
(su’a)
za
mihu
MV
pa
p
transitive suma
zm
fu
v
(su’a)
za
quhu
AV
’iffa
i;f
ablative puttu
o;e
sacu
sy
raja
rj
kassi
k;S
kalu
kW
dative pixi
PX
ba’u
bu
datu
de
jusi
YS
ku
>
genitive (alienable) pagu
p<
ba
b
su’a
za
disi
DS
-
(inalienable) -pahi
pH
-ba
b
-
-disi
DS
-qa
q

first person:

intransitive: ’usu uz

transitive: suma zm

ablative: puttu o;e

dative: pixi PX

alienable genitive: pagu p<

inalienable genitive: -pahi pH

second person:

intransitive: filli F;L

transitive: fu v

ablative: sacu sy

dative: ba’u bu

alienable genitive: ba b

inalienable genitive: -ba b

third person topic:

intransitive: (su’a) za

transitive: (su’a) za

ablative: raja rj

dative: datu de

alienable genitive: su’a za

third person animate:

intransitive: mihu MV

transitive: quhu AV

ablative: kassi k;S

dative: jusi YS

alienable genitive: disi DS

inalienable genitive: -disi DS

third person inanimate:

intransitive: pa p

transitive: ’iffa i;f

ablative: kalu kW

dative: ku >

inalienable genitive: -qa q

Number

Pronouns are not generally marked for number.

However, if reference is made to a group that includes more than one of these persons, then additional pronouns can be constructed. The second person transitive pronoun -fu v and you can be suffixed to the first person pronouns to form first person inclusive plural pronouns. The third person intransitive inanimate pronoun -pa p and them can be suffixed to first or second person pronouns, including those with -fu, to form other plural pronouns. These pronouns have no inalienable genitive form.

1st person 2nd person all persons
inclusive exclusive inclusive
intransitive ’usufu
uzv
’usupa
uzp
fillipa
F;Lp
’usufupa
uzvp
transitive sumafu
zmv
sumapa
zmp
fupa
vp
sumafupa
zmvp
ablative puttufu
o;ev
puttupa
o;ep
sacupa
syp
puttufupa
o;evp
dative pixifu
PXv
pixipa
PXp
ba’upa
bup
pixifupa
PXvp
alienable genitive pagufu
p<v
pagupa
p<p
bapa
bp
pagufupa
p<vp

first person inclusive:

intransitive: ’usufu uzv

transitive: sumafu zmv

ablative: puttufu o;ev

dative: pixifu PXv

alienable genitive: pagufu p<v

first person exclusive:

intransitive: ’usupa uzp

transitive: sumapa zmp

ablative: puttupa o;ep

dative: pixipa PXp

alienable genitive: pagupa p<p

second person inclusive:

intransitive: fillipa F;Lp

transitive: fupa vp

ablative: sacupa syp

dative: ba’upa bup

alienable genitive: bapa bp

all persons:

intransitive: ’usufupa uzvp

transitive: sumafupa zmvp

ablative: puttufupa o;evp

dative: pixifupa PXvp

alienable genitive: pagufupa p<vp

Genitive Forms

The genitive forms mark a connection between nouns, including one noun possessing another.

Alienable Possession

Possession is alienable when the possessed item can be transferred from one owner to another. Alienable possessions include objects bought or received by a person. There is no inanimate alienable genitive pronoun as objects cannot own anything.

The structure of the possessive phrase for alienable possession is “possessor genitive possessed”.

This structure is also used in a hierarchy when the ‘possessor’ is of higher rank than the ‘possessed’.

Inalienable Possession

Inalienable possession refers to items which are unable to be transferred from one individual to another. Inalienable possessions include relatives, parts of the body and objects created by a person.

For inalienable possession, as well as genitive constructions that do not involve literal possession, the structure is “possessed-genitive possessor“, that is, the genitive marker is an enclitic on the possessed item. This marker is always the third person inanimate genitive pronoun, unless the possessor is a plain pronoun.

This structure is also used in a hierarchy when the ‘possessor’ is of lower rank than the ‘possessed’, in contrast to the alienable example above.

Items inalienably possessed by the topic appear without a genitive pronoun.

Some kinship terms have suppletive forms when used with a plain possessive pronoun. See that section for details.