Adverbs

Adverbs are a closed class. Adverbs can be used either as a verbal suffix or independently to describe the entire utterance. See Also: Adverbial Clauses

matta m;t also

gicirri GC;R instead

naku n> together

basa bs unlawfully

Purpose

piddi P;D on purpose

qiriji QRJ with effort

hibu HO allow oneself to

dumi EM try to

danna d;n successfully

ca’alla ca;l must

fuca vc can

ritada Rtd by fate

macu my unexpectedly

xani xN unwillingly

dukku E;> not by choice

Extent

dapi dP more than is necessary

famu fU completely

rali rL intensely

kupira >Pr in many different ways

ti’ici TiC to a certain extent

cipati CpT to that extent

tuci eC barely

miru Mw about to

xibbuti X;OT never again

Time

xuga Zg instantly

cidatu Cde suddenly

karu kw commonly

gaqqu g;A usually

naru nw slowly

nigi NG quickly

dura Er repeatedly

Modals

These adverbs cannot be used as verbal suffixes, and can only describe an entire sentence.

matta m;t again

hiru Hw contrariwise

Likelihood

These tell how likely an event is to have occurred, or to occur in the future.

’ili iL actually

da’aru daw experience

fa f maybe

tasi tS probably

qaxa qx predicted to

mica Mc permitted to

nufira IFr want to

rixi RX would be better to

Evidential

These give the means by which the speaker gained information with regards to their utterance.

raqa rq obviously

da d clearly

jami jM evidentially

qaffi q;F seemingly

jati jT apparently

xakila xKl thought to be

lisina LSn by assumption

rafa rf by hearsay

Emotion

These convey the feelings of the speaker towards the utterance or the listener.

pu’i oi incredulity (“I can’t believe it!”)

rapi rP disregard (“I don’t care!”)

tappa t;p seeking confirmation (“Isn’t it?”)

rani rN giving confirmation (“I agree.”)

qarihu qRV regret (“I’m sorry.”)

tupi eP respect (“With all due respect…”)

Derivation

There are modals derived from other parts of speech. Suffixes can be applied to words to move them between parts of speech. Zero-derivation, i.e.: having a null suffix, is also productive for some categories of words, such as references to time.

musa Us today

laru lw this year

tariti tRT at noon

Numbers can be suffixed to denote other times.

musahha

Us;h

musa-hha

day-zero

lit: “0-day”

“yesterday”

musara

Usr

musa-ra

day-two

lit: “2-day”

“tomorrow”

larumullu

lwU;W

laru-mullu

year-minus_one

lit.:1-day”

“two years ago”

Inflection

There are some inflectional suffixes applied to adverbs, including two kinds of negation. The suffix -hita Ht is standard negation.

jamihita jMHt not in evidence

’ilihita iLHt not in reality

On the other hand, the suffix -ma m forms terminatives, i.e.: the situation described by the adverb was true in the past, but no longer applies.

nufirama no longer wanting

dumima no longer trying