Phonology

Consonants

labial dental palatal velar glottal
stop p b t d k g
affricate < c > < j >
nasal m n ɲ < ñ > ŋ < q >
lateral l ʎ < l̰ >
trill r
sibilant s ɕ < x >
fricative f v ð ç < h̰ > h
approximant w j < y >

stops:

labial: p

dental: t

velar: k

voiced:

labial: b

alveolar: d

velar: g

affricates:

voiceless palatal: < c >

voiced palatal: < j >

nasals:

labial: m

alveolar: n

palatal: ɲ < ñ >

velar: ŋ < q >

liquids:

alveolar lateral: l

alveolar trill: r

sibilants:

alveolar: s

palatal: ɕ < x >

non-sibilant fricatives:

voiceless labial: f

voiced labial: v

dental: ð

palatal: ç < h̰ >

glottal: h

approximants:

labio-velar: w

palatal: j < y >

This table shows the consonants phonemically, using the International Phonetic Alphabet. Where it differs from IPA, the transliteration is given in < triangular brackets >.

Vowels

front central back
close i y < ü > u
mid e (ø < ö >) (ə) (o)
open æ

close:

front unrounded: i

front rounded: y < ü >

back rounded: u

mid:

front unrounded: e

front rounded: (ø < ö >)

central: (ə)

back rounded: (o)

open:

front: æ

Allophony

Unstressed vowels are realised as ə.

Rounded vowels are lowered, i.e.: uo and yø, before peripheral consonants. The latter change also occurs at the ends of words.