Diachrony

This page includes a list of changes from High Lulani to Colloquial Lulani.

Phonology

A detailed up-to-date list of changes in kept at GitHub, in a Python file that applies these changes to a High Lulani word.

  • Lowering of back vowels before peripheral consonants.
  • Shifting of geminate consonants: unvoiced plosive → voiced plosive → voiced fricative
  • I-mutation of vowels when followed by /i/ in the next syllable.
  • Palatalisation of alveolar sounds when followed by /i/.
  • Loss of /i/ after geminate consonants.
  • Degemination of consonants.
  • Elision of unstressed /ə/, followed by consonant cluster reduction.
  • Reduction of remaining unstressed vowels to schwa. This can be transliterated with a lower dot on the affected vowel.

Morphology

Verbs and adjectives

Auxiliaries were cliticised onto verbs. From a combination of stress patterns and elision / reduction of unstressed vowels, verbs became trigrade. Adjectives developed from verbs originally followed by monosyllabic auxiliaries, i.e.: grade one and grade zero verbs. Grade two verbs remained verbs, however, the meaning of the auxiliaries has shifted.

Grade zero:

< verb > + -hu → emotional adjectives

Grade one:

< verb > + -pi → positive adjectives

< verb > + -ji → negative adjectives

< verb > + -ru → abstract gerund

< verb > + -na → concrete gerund

Grade two:

< verb > + -qixa → past perfect

< verb > + -cani → non-past perfect

< verb > + -taku → past imperfect

< verb > + -ra’u → non-past imperfect

< verb > + -qilu → negative

< verb > + -lanu → positive imperative

< verb > + -funi → negative imperative

< verb > + -rusa → past historic

< verb > + -ruku → future historic

< verb > + -nagi → Ø

Syntax

The dative began to take over the functions of the accusative, which was thereby dropped.